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Smart cities, in whose interest? (in Kreol)

18.02.2016

Proze Smart Cities: Dan Ki Lintere?


Proze Smart Cities finn vinn osant diskur dirizan guvernman Lalyans Lepep. Zot pe prezant sa proze la kuma solisyon mirak pu problem ekonomik ek sosyal ki Moris pe fer fas. Zot bann proze imans ki inplik sanzman drastik peizaz zeografik Moris, enn reamenazman teritwar kuma zame finn ena, avek investisman kolosal anterm finans ek resurs. Dayer apel zot “mega proze”. Zot telman imans ki u poz lakestyon eski zot realizab ubyin guvernman Lalyans Lepep pe zis vann bann rev, ubyin plito kosmar, ar popilasyon. Parski si guvernman reysi realiz sa bann proze la, li pu reprezant enn danze pu lavenir, dabor pu suverennte Moris, me osi pu sekirite alimanter e pu demokrasi. Li pu osi fer sanzman dan balans de fors ant klas sosyal, li pu met klas travayer dan enn dezavantaz dan lalit deklas. Alor nu bizin sey konpran ki ete Smart Cities e ki zot porte.


 Li kler ki guvernman Lalyans Lepep pa ti ena enn vre program apre so viktwar dan eleksyon 2014. Sa lalyans MSM-PMSD-ML pa ti ena enn program pu fer fas sityasyon kritik kot lekonomi Moris ete. Li pa ti ena enn program pu kreasyon lanplwa an gran nomb. Alor li pe oblize swiv plan lezot dimunn ki ena lintere dan sa kalite devlopman Smart Cities la, akoz sa mank enn program la.


 E sa proze Smart Cities, li kuyoner pu enn lot rezon. Drolman, ena Smart Cities ki fini demare avan-mem Guvernman Jugnauth anons zot, ava-mem ki kree so lalwa kad. Zot ti deza pe pran form pandan reyn Navin Ramgoolam!


 Nuvo zeografi ekonomik


Alor, li pa vremem itil pu get proze Smart Cities an izolasyon depi kontex ekonomik ek sosyal. Nu pa kapav separ Smart Cities depi sa kad ki, dan LALIT, nu finn analize an profonder dan sesyon “Enn nuvo Zeografi Ekonomik? Mitasyon Ekonomik ek Zeografik” ki nu manb Ram Seegobin ti anime an 2015. Setadir, nu bizin konsyan kimanyer sanzman ekonomik dernye 20-30 an finn afekte lavil ek lakanpayn diferaman, ki lefe santralizasyon ek mekanizasyon dan lindistri sikriyer finn ena dan lakanpayn kan 21 mulin finn vinn 4, kan finn ena destriksyon lanplwa atraver VRS ek Blue Print, kan 50,000 travayer finn redwir a 5,000. Anplis finn ena fermtir buku lizinn zonn frans dan vilaz. Nu ti osi get lefe kan sipermarse finn ranplas labutik kot dimunn ti al tir rasyon regilyerman, e kot ti gayn fasilite kredi. Tusala finn kree enn santiman insekirite otur lanplwa, landetman, lozman. An zeneral, dimunn pe viv enn angwas dan lakanpayn, kot lavenir telman insertin.


 Finn osi ena anmemtan devlopman sant komersyal, hipermarse, Shopping Mall ki truv sirtu dan rezyon riral – kuma Bagatelle, Cascavelle, Tamarin, Gran Baie, Flacq, Trianon, e sa finn kree enn imans diferans ant dimunn ris ek dimunn mizer. Anmemtan, sa inplantasyon komers dan lakanpayn finn vinn ralanti aktivite komersyal dan lavil. Sa finn antrenn fermtir buku magazin, ti komers, labutik dan rezyon irbin.  Zordi apartir 6 pm sant Por Lwi fini vinn enn landrwa ‘mor’. Rozil, ki dan bann lane ’80 ti plito enn lavil kiltirel, byin vivan, kot tultan ena mizisyin pe zwe lor sime, anba arkad, partu dan kartye, li finn vinn enn vitrinn komersyal enpe tern, ranpli ar magazin, labank ek bizness. Parey kuma Port Louis, li paret pe mor. Anmemtan finn ena enn exod deklas kot sa tit burzwazi ki ti pe sweyn bann klib ek lasosyasyon dan lavil ek dan so fobur, finn buz ver lezot rezyon kuma Albion, Tamarin, Roches Brunes, Sodnac.


 Parfwa dimunn bliye ki sa ete enn lavil. Seki definir enn lavil se so abitan. Se so abitan ki fer li viv, ki donn li so lesuf, ki kree so bann plas popiler kuma bazar, lafwar, zardin konpayni. Li kitsoz ki pran form depi anba. Mitasyon ekonomik ek zeografik su lefe dikta burzwazi, avek kudme diferan guvernman ek bann elit, finn plito detrir sa animasyon dan lavil e anmemtan finn agrav kriz sosyal. Smart Cities ki Lalyans Lepep pe prone riske amenn ankor plis problem olye solisyon.


 Kimanyer lide kreasyon Smart Cities devlope?


Kan nu get kronolozi lor manyer ki proze Smart Cities finn evolye li donn enn lide lor Lalyans MSM-PMSD-ML so inkoerans ek so labsans enn plan devlopman ekonomik pu mwayin ek pu lonterm. Zame Smart Cities ti santral dan zot program guvernmantal. Lefet ki zot pa ti ena enn plan pe amenn zot akros ar plan ki lezot ti deza pe sey met anplas.   


 KRONOLOZI


* Desam 2014: Dan Program elektoral Lalyans Lepep 2014 nek ena enn mansyon devlopman ‘Airport City’ dan rezyon laeropor ek proze fitirist ‘Highlands City’ ki ti prezante kuma enn vitrinn pu Moris 2050, setadir dan 25 an.


 Me seki interesan dan mem Program Lepep la, ena proze pu fer Moris vinn “un coffre-fort pour les riches”. Nu pa tro sir ki sa ule dir, me li paret anvizaz pu etablir kad pu atir dimunn ris pu vinn gard zot asets Moris. Kumadir bann “kofor” kuma Ramgoolam ti ena – lakaz e dan Labank. Ala seki li ekrir dan Program Lalyans Lepep: “Etablir le cadre nécessaire pour attirer des personnes riches qui viendraient sécuriser leurs actifs durables à Maurice dans des coffres forts connus comme des ‘allocated accounts’. Cette activité a connu un immense succès à Singapour.” Seki pli grav pli lwin li dir fran-fran ki sa kalite proze la pu nesesit plis represyon: “La condition sine-qua-non pour attirer ces personnes est une sécurité sans faille, d’où la nécessité de redresser et consolider le ‘law & order’”. Pu Jugnauth, sa term ‘law & order’ vedir ‘represyon’.


 * Mars 2015: Dan diskur Bidze 2015-16, Minis Finans Vishnu Lutchmeenaraidoo anons “13 Mega Proze” Smart Cities: Omnicane Airport City, St Félix Village, The Médine Integrated Park, Roches Noires, Azuri Phase 2, The Terra project, The Highlands City, The Riche Terre Project, ek anmemtan 5 ‘Technopoles’ dan Highlands, Rose Belle, Flacq, Rivière du Rempart, Bambous. Li dekrir Smart City par enn formil enpe kuyoner: “Plas kot dimunn ena rezidans, travay ek lwazir.”


 * 8 Me 2015: Dan so kominike Kabine Minis, Guvernman pran not kreasyon enn Smart City Scheme Incentive Task Force prezide par Gaetan Siew. So bi se pu demar investisman dan proze Smart Cities. Li mansyonn ki ena “8 mega-proze” lor 7,000 arpan later ki deza dan payplayn. Investisman total: Rs120 milyar. Bann sif lor nomb Smart Cities e so kantite investisman konstaman sanze, san explikasyon.


 * 12 Zin 2015: Guvernman met enn Regulation Investment Promotion Act pu etablir kad legal pu Smart Cities, sirtu pu lavant ek akizisyon terin e so kondisyon. Ladan ena buku lavantaz pu milyarder deor ek diaspora Morisyin kuma exanpsyon depi innkom tax pu 8 an, depi VAT lor konstriksyon ek lekipman, depi Customs Duty lor materyo inporte ek sirtu ena gro exanpsyon lor Land Transfer Tax, Registration Duty, Land Conversion Tax ek Morcellement Tax.


 * 12 Zin 2015: Guvernman, dan sa mem Regulation, GN 128, kot li ofer sitwayennte proprieter enn lakaz ubyin biznes dan Smart City e ki investi $5 milyon.


 * 12 Zin 2015: SAJ lans premye Smart City dan Mon Tresor. Seki drol, li ti deza enn proze an santye depi avan, kuma plizir lezot (Airport, Medine, etc). Dan so diskur SAJ koz lor rol kle ki sekter prive pu ena dan devlopman Smart Cities. Ondire li enn amenazman teritwar privatize net.


 * 22 Ut 2015: Dan so diskur pu explik so vizyon pu Moris apel “Achieving the Second Economic Miracle and Vision 2030”, SAJ anonse ki Moris pu vinn kuma enn gran santye ek pu transforme an enn Smart Island. Ala seki li deklare: “As announced, an important component of our innovation strategy is to transform Mauritius into a SMART island, an evolution of the Cyber Island I envisioned in 2001,which would make us the home and model for innovation in this part of the world.  Altogether, the 13 megaprojects will drastically optimise the utilisation of some 7,000 arpents of land, mobilise some 120 billion rupees of much needed private and foreign direct investments, create thousands of jobs, and give a tremendous boost to the construction industry which has been contracting since 2011. Our country will soon be ‘un vaste chantier de développement.’ ”


 * Kabine Minis 16 Oktob 2015: Guvernman anonse ki proze Smart Cities Riche Terre pu finanse par Jin Fei: “Cabinet has taken note of the status in the development projects at Riche Terre since the signature of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Mauritius and the Mauritius JinFei Economic Trade and Cooperation Zone Co. Ltd in May 2015. The company has already submitted its Master Plan that would include a Convention Centre, an Educational Complex, an International Financial Centre (including a branch of the Bank of China), and a Business Hotel and would carry out the project under the Smart City Scheme. A new joint venture company – the Riche Terre Smart City Ltd – has also been incorporated to promote development at Riche Terre.”


 * 5-6 Novam 2015: 4 yem rankont Réunion-Maurice du Développement Durable axe lor konsep Smart City.


 * Desam 2015: Lagazet Le Defi (24 Desam) anons ki nomb proze Smart Cities finn vinn 16. Investisman plis ki Rs125 milyar.


 * 15 Zanvye 2016: Minis Lutchmeenaraidoo, Nadho Bodha, Anwar Husnoo ek G.Siew (Prezidan State Land Development Company) anons proze Port Louis Smart City. Investisman Rs 52 milyar. Li pu finanse par sekter prive, guvernman kontribiye par donn later. Pu transform Lagar Victoria ek Plas Imigrasyon an 2000 parking. Konpayni Airbus dir li interese pu met sistem onnlayn pu konekte tu servis ofer dan lavil.


 * 23 Zanvye 2016: Pwin de pres Minis Bhadain, so PS Dev Phokeer ek Dev Manraj. Minis Bhadain anons proze Heritage City lor 3 an. Pu ena 6 Iconic Tower, PMO Tower, 200 vila delix (Rs12 a 14 milyon), 400 apartman (Rs7 a 8 milyon), 400 lakaz ‘afordable’(Rs 4 a 5 milyon). Finansman: Rs 30 milyar. Guvernman kontribye anterm valer terin Rs 7 milyar, Saudi Devlopment Fund pret Rs10,5 milyar ranbursab lor 30 an. Minis Soodhun finn anonse ki Larabi Saudit fini dakor finans sa proze la. Minis Bhadain promet li pu livre Premye Minis so 6 Tower, PMO Tower ek nuvo Parlman dan 3 an. Sa vedir li anonse ki kapital pu buze depi Port Louis, akoz e Parlman e Lexekitif pe al Heritage City!


 11 Fevriye 2016: State Land Development Company Ltd (SLDC) an kolaborasyon avek Board of Investment (BOI) organiz enn konferans lor Smart Cities “The Smart Mauritius and Innovation Summit 2016”, Maritim Hotel le 11 ek 12 Fevriye. 27 orater pran laparol.


 Repertwar Proze Smart Cities pu Moris


Sa 16 ubyin 17 proze Smart Cities ena 2 kalite: enn ki enn IRS ki finn expann pu vinn enn nuvo espes “lavil” (san nam) kot ena sant komersyal ek prodiksyon osi. Sa vedir pu ena devlopman vila delix, apartman, sant komersyal, terin golf, lotel, sant lwazir-spor, sant swin medikal, zonn edikatif ek morselman ki ansam pu konstitye enn nuvo lavil. Enn lot, kuma Port Louis, li konsern sanse moderniz enn lavil existan, par introdir enn bann gadjet elektronik.


 Ala enn lalist proze ki guvernman finn site:


 Trianon Smart City: Finansman par Hermes Properties Ltd ki form parti Grup Chantier de Plaisance (Wong Chin). Investisman Rs17 milyar lor 12 an. Siperfisi 87 arpan.


 Highlands City: Promoter SLDC. Li enn vye proze 10 an. Lor 300 arpan.


 Heritage City: Pu vinn nuvo sant administratif guvernman. Parlman, PMO ek 15 minister demenaze. Lor 336 arpan. Ti anons finansman Rs24 milyar epi Dubai. Aster Minis Soodhun finn deklare ki Larabi Saudit ki pe finanse.


 Riche Terre: Dan mem plas ki Jin FEi/Tianli. Guvernman pu ena 80% aksyon ek Shanxi Invsetment Group (Lasinn), Lor 100 arpan.


 Mauritius Yihai Garden: Dan Domaine les Pailes. Li enn joint venture SIC (ki proprieter plas la0 ek Yihai International Investment Mangement(Lasinn). Pu Rs 9 milyar.


 Roches Noires Smart City: LI ti enn IRS depi 2005. Invvestiser Jean Marie Bain ek Cassiopee (Ile Maurice) ek posib enn grup depi Lasinn YIHE. Investisman Rs 44 milyar.


 Cap Tamarin: Proze fami Jhubboo(inkli depite Pt Ezra Jhubboo). Promoter Trimetys Ltd an joint venture avek Societe R. Jhubboo & Cie ek George Talbotier. Lor 105 arpan pu Rs 9 milyar. Zot ti organiz festival “Eco-Bridge” pu sey kuver lefet ki zot Smart City telman “smart” ki li pe betonn enn wet-land.


 Royal St. Louis: Li truv ant Pailles ek Moka. Investiser prinsipal Groupe Roland Maurel Ltd lor 51 arpan. Groupe Maurel ti vann Domaine les Pailles ar guvernman 20 desela me zot ti gard wenn parti later dan sa rezyon la. Promoter GRM ek Morningside FZLLC ki baze Emira Arab Ini. Investisman Rs 16 milyar.


 ENL Moka City: Inklir Bagatelle Mall, Vuivea Business Park, Motor City ek les Allees de Helvetia ki deza existe. Depi 10 an Grup ENL ena enn plan devlopman pu sa rezyon la. ENL se fizyon Savannah ek Mon Desert Alma, ki zot posed enn patrimwann 16,000 arpan later dan Sant ek Lesid Moris. An 2012 Grup Rogers ek Food & Allied, ek New Mauritius Hotels finn vinn filyal sa grup. Zot proze lor 1400 arpan later.


 Le Park de Mon Choisy: Proze ki finn deza demare avek Mont Choisy Shopping Promenade. Ansyin IRS lor 1200 arpan later. Inklir plizir vila, apartman delix ek terin golf. Pena plis detay lor sa proze la.


 Medine Education Village: Deza fini demare West Coast International Primary School, Vatel, Talents. Ena 10 liniversite international ki pe inplante dan sa rezyon la. Promoter Grup Medine. Investisman Rs 12 milyar.


Azuri: Enn ansyin IRS.Finn gayn stati Smart City. Promoter IOREC ki apartenir a Groupe Mon Loisir. Investisman Rs 5 milyar.


 Omnicane Smart City: Sitye pre kot laeropor Plaisance. Lor 1192 arpan ek investisman Rs 29 milyar. Apar Omnicane ena osi partner Sid Afrik ek Lerop.


 Eco Village St Felix: Investisman par Konpayni St Felix pu Rs 3,2 milyar.


Terra: Sitye dan Beau Plan. Proze finanse par Konpayni Terra (Groupe Harel Freres).


 Massilia: Pena detay lor sa proze la.


 Ferney: Pena detay lor sa proze la.


 Ki lintere deryer proze Smart Cities?


Kisannla ki interese dan devlopman Smart Cities?  Li paret ki ena presyon depi 3 kategori  dimunn.


 1. Burzwazi istorik ek lezot kapitalis ki interese dan spekilasyon later


Kriz ki lindistri sikriyer pe traverse pe obliz burzwazi istorik rod tu kalite mwayin pu kontiyn fer gro profi, kuma par ogmant valer zot later, bayant li swa met li angaz pu pran larzan prete ar Labank. Plizir grup dan burzwazi istorik ti deza fini rant dan proze devlopman fonsye atraver konstriksyon IRS ki guvernman PT-PMSD ti ankuraze. Ena mem sertin grup ki deza ena zot prop plan devlopman alonterm kuma Medine so Master Plan 2005-2025 ek Mon Desert-Mon Tresor so Urban Master Plan pu ziska 2065. Ondire zot deza krwar zot enn “guvernman eli” ki kapav fer amenazman teritwar enn pei! Dan lalist Smart Cities ena deza ENL, Omnicane, Medine, GML, St Felix, Terra ki fini demar zot prop proze. Me, remarke ki tusa sif lanplwa ki zot pe anonse dan proze Smart Cities, zot pa dan sekter prodiksyon ditu. Zot an-gran parti dan sekter intandans, setadir “travay servant” kuma dan lepok feodal: zardinye, kwizinye, mizisyin ek lezot artis a-lwe, sofer, fer netwayaz, vey zanfan.


 2. Konpayni ki pe devlop sa teknolozi kompyuter/internet otur Smart Cities


Konsep deryer Smart Cities li plito vag. Ena enn asonpsyon ki infrastriktir irbin ek lavi tulezur kapav/bizin optimize e vinn ‘ekolozik’ atraver teknolozi, ubyin atraver inovasyon atraver konpayni IT. Anfet se enn lanbalaz “lavantaz teknolozi” ki zot prezante pu vann proze Smart Cities, kuma enn seri gadjet. Alor, totalite sa bann gadjet la, swadizan merit nom “smart”. Enpe kuma Smart Kard, sa Kart Idantite otan diskredite la. Me, “smart” enn mo ki ule dir “byin abiye” enn kote, ek “gran malin”, lot kote. Alor, kisannla pa ti pu kontan viv dan enn lavil ‘smart’?


 Anfet kanpayn pu promuvwar Smart Cities pe vinn deplizanpli for depi dernye 10 an. Sa li ase trakasan. Bizin tultan sispekte sa bann slogan ek solisyon ki depann buku lor nuvo teknolozi. Li inportan kone kisannla vremem ena kontrol lor sa kalite teknolozi la.


 Anfet kuran neo-liberal su linfliyans bann linstitisyon kuma Labank Mondyal, OECD, FMI finn propaz lide pu fer bann lavil vinn “zarm” devlopman nasyonal, rezyonal ek global – me andeor kontrol demokratik. (Rapel MMM-MSM ti kareman ferm Konsey Vilaz, an 2001-2, e LALIT ti amenn enn long batay pu re-met zot). Lefet ki lavil inn vinn enn “zarm” devlopman pu kapitalist finn alimant konpetisyon ant lavil pu atir investisman, turist, ‘elit kreatif’ e osi pu atir evennman global kuma Kup Dimond ubyin Olinpik. Anmemtan avek lamonte irbanizasyon global bann lavil finn vinn kuma sit stratezik pu diyl ar ek chalenj sanzman global ek problem lanvironnman.


 Buku koze lor Smart Cities sorti depi Leta Zini, sirtu depi MIT so laboratwar. Depi bann lane 1990 laplipar dokimantasyon lor Smart Cities sorti gro konpayni kuma CISCO, Siemens, IBM. Ena mem enn trademark ‘Smarter Cities’ ki IBM finn anrezistre ofisyelman an 2011. Parmi bann gran vander teknolozi Smart Cities ki pli resan ena Schneider Electric, Hitachi, Accenture, Toshiba, General Electric, Microsoft, Oracle, Capgemini.


 Zordi Smart Cities alamod dan Lerop. Linyon Eropein pe finans plizir proze Smart Cities partu dan Lerop. Pu fer Smart Cities paret mwin alyene, zot fer enn-de ki paret pli rezonab. Par exanp, dan Milan dan Litali, zot finn finans proze pu reos lefisyans lenerzi bann batiman administratif.


 Dan US Prezidan Obama finn anons so plan Smart Cities valer USD 160 milyon pu fer sertin lavil ek rezyon vinn ‘smart’. La osi, ena enn-de progre dan enn pakej byin anti-demokratik. Michael Bloomberg, enn bilyoner ki ti lemer New York City ant 2002-2014 finn fer Mahantan vinn enn imans seri ‘gated communities’ pu dimunn ris. Enn “gated community”, li kareman lekontrer enn “lavil” anterm so lespri. “Gated community”, ankor enn fwa, fer rapel bann sato lepok feodal, avek so rampart ek so dilo otur li pu ki pa kapav rantre san permisyon sa nob la.


 Dan Lend, Premye Minis Modi finn menas konstrir 100 Smart Cities ziska 2020 pu kompiyt ar Lasinn ki pe inklir Smart Cities kuma pilye so plan irbanizasyon. E, anfet, zis pu donn enn sansasyon pli efreyan ankor a sa konsep la, se Israel ki ansarz devlopman tu laspe teknolozik dan Modi so program Smart Cities. Se Academic College Tel Aviv-Jaffa ki pe siperviz proze Smart Cities dan Pune, Nagpur ek Nashik dan leta Maharashtra. Teknisyin guvernman Israel ki responsab pu mentor, antrenn ek fer konsiltan pu met sa bann lavil la lor sistem WiFi, dizitalizasyon ek itilizasyon smart phone avek GPS. Anfet lavil Tel Aviv ti gayn pri Meyer Lavil dan World Smart City Award 2014 ki ti fer Barselonn. Israel sanpyon lemond konstrir miray, e infliz represyon lor enn popilasyon irbin, kuma dan Gaza. Li interesan note ki Claude Wong So, CEO ansarz Smart Cities Moris, dan enn interview dan Le Matinal 27 Zanvye 2016, ti nom Tel Aviv, parmi 2 lavil li site kuma lexanp Smart Cities.


 Dapre David Harvey, enn zeograf Amerikin ki osi enn Marxist, irbanizasyon ek kapitalism zot intiman lye. Akoz sistem kapitalist tultan bizin nuvo marse, nuvo teritwar pu prodir sirplis, nuvo plas investi, e anmemtan pu sey evit enn krash ekonomik mondyal kan li pena sa, li bizin nuvo zafer tultan, kuma kolonizasyon lontan, e zordi kuma irbanizasyon sovaz (e osi lager). Sistem kapitalism global finn travers par plizir kriz rezyonal kuma dan Sid Est ek Les Lazi dan bann lane 1997-98, dan Larisi an 1998, Larzantinn an 2001. Me depi lane 1990 li finn sey evit enn kriz mondyal fas a so inkapasite pu dispoz sirplis kapital. Pu Harvey samem finn rol sa irbanizasyon masif: setadir pu sey stabiliz sistem kapitalist global, par truv plas pu li investi.


 Dan Leta Zini, par exanp, se marse imobilye ek sekter konstriksyon ki finn absorb imans sirplis atraver devlopman dan sant lavil, avek kreasyon lozman otur lavil ek lespas pu biro. Sa frenezi irbanizasyon la finn vinn global dan bann lane 2000; finn ena boom imobilye dan Langleter, dan Lespayn, finn ena devlopman nuvo lavil dan Lasinn. Depi 2000, Lasinn inport lamwatye prodiksyon sima dan lemond, zis pu donn enn lide so konstriksyon. Lasinn ena zordi 100 lavil avek plis ki 1 milyon abitan. Ena ansyin vilaz kuma Shenzhen ki zordi enn metropol kot 6 a 10 milyon dimunn viv ek travay. Pu David Harvey Lasinn, ki zordi finn integre li dan marse global, finn ena enn rol inportan dan stabiliz lekonomi kapitalism.


 Apre 2001 finn ena enn akselerasyon prosesis irbanizasyon ek proze Smart Cities. Finn ena bann mega proze irbanizasyon dan USA, dan Mwayin Oryan kuma dan Dubai, Abu Dhabi. Li paret aster ki sa vag la pe ariv ziska Moris. E, se sa ki finn kontribiye pu kriz 2008, kan sa “bubble” la kase.


 3. Individi kapitalist plis enn parti elit dan klas mwayenn ki anvi viv dan ‘gated communities’


Kan nu ti koz lor nuvo zeografi ekonomik nu ti explik kimanyer finn ena sa deplasman dimunn klas mwayenn ver nuvo rezyon kuma Roches Brunes, Albion, Tamarin, Flic en Flac ubyin otur Ebene City. Sa finn ogmant demand pu lozman de lix, apartman iper-sekirize, avek kamera CCTV ek parfwa lapolis ‘proximite’. Rezim Navin Ramgoolam finn ankuraz proliferasyon sa stil rezidans barikade la kuma IRS, sirtu pu milyarder depi deor. Zordi dan lemond ena konpayni miltinasyonal ki spesyalize dan devlopman ek zesyon program kompyuter pu diferan servis, inkli teknolozi sirveyans ki kapav monitor muvman abitan Smart Cities, e cheke ki dimunn pa otorize pa rantre. Dayer Microsoft ek Airbus finn montre lintere pu Smart Cities dan Moris.


 Dan Honduras ena mem bann rezyon antye apel ZEDE (Zone for Employment and Economic Development), su kontrol prive, ki ena ziska zot prop sistem legal andeor zidisyer ofisyel. Ena avoka ek aktivist ase santrist ki finn kritik ZEDE akoz li menas suverennte pei ek drwa sitwayin pu kontrol later pei.


 Danze avek Smart Cities


1. Re-kolonizasyon


Devloman proze Smart Cities riske amenn enn rekolonizasyon Moris par milyarder lezot pei ek konpayni miltinasyonal. Li pu enn kolonizasyon stil-Israel so kolonizasyon Palestinn. Sa vedir enn seri grup lakaz barikade depi lamas dimunn. Sanzman dan Investmnet Promotion Act ki finn fer Zin lane dernyer, e Regulation 128 su sa lalwa la, permet dimunn ki investi 5 milyon dollar US gayn stati sitwayin Morisyin apre 2 an. Gaetan Siew finn anons sif 150,000 dimunn (10% popilasyon anplis), sirtu milyarder ek zot fami, ki pu vinn inplant zot Moris avek proze Smart Cities.


 Proze Smart Cities ki guvernman Lalyans Lepep pe inisye riske diviz Moris an 2: bann Smart Cities zere par konpayni prive, kot zis dimunn ris reste avek infrastriktir ki servi ot teknolozi ek tu fasilite pu transpor, lwazir ek lot kote lavil ek vilaz kot sirtu travayer ek dimunn mizer reste, kot Minisipalite ek Distrik Kawnsil pena preske resurs ditu pu asir servis neseser pu so abitan. Seki nu truve dan Palestinn, nu pu truve Moris.


 2. Itilizasyon later ki ti kapav servi pu devlop lagrikiltir


Dapre sif guvernman 13 proze Smart Cities pu itiliz 7,000 arpan later ek inplik Rs120 milyar rupi investisman. Li enn proze gurma later, gurma kapital. Ti kapav servi kapital ek later meyer. 75% sa bann proze la rezerve pu kapitalis lezot pei e leres 25% pu diaspora Morisyin kapitalis lokal, si zot kapav aford e anvi res laba.


 Sa stratezi devlopman Smart Cities guvernman Lalyans Lepep pe vinn anfet etann puvwar ekonomik klas kapitalist. Li pu vedir imans porsyon later agrikol ki ti kapav servi pu devlopman lagrikiltir ek agro-indistri, bayante e betone. Li ule dir destriksyon sa kalite posibilite devlopman ki ena potansyel kree buku lanplwa tutswit, ki pu asir sekirite alimanter pei alonterm, e devlop enn marse exportasyon prodwi agrikol.


 Investment Promotion Regulations 2015 (Smart City Scheme) anfet ofer enn seri exanpsyon tax pu biznesmenn ek investiser dan Smart Cities, sirtu ena gro exanpsyon lor Land Transfer Tax, Registration Duty, Land Conversion Tax ek Morcellement Tax. Alor, Guvernman pe sibvansyonn bann milyarder deor, pu zot vinn koloniz Moris. Li inkrwayab, me li vre. Smart Cities pu anfet bayant later agrikol ar milyarder pu friktifye profi pu tablisman ek lezot kapitalist.


 An partikilye, nu truve ki zis dan moman kot kann ek disik pe rant dan zot leral, Guvernman pe demisyone divan so responsabilite istorik. Li ti oredi sezi sa lokazyon la pu shifte tu resurs


prodiksyon agrikol prodwi alimanter ki vremem dan lintere lepep.


 3. Demokrasi


Guvernman MSM-PMSD-ML so proze Smart Cities vedir mwins puvwar pu Konsey Vilaz, District Kawnsil, Minisipalite ek plis puvwar pu klas kapitalist. Anfet, li ule dir destriksyon Konsey Vilaz, ek afeblisman grav Konsey Distrik ek Minisipalite. Tusa bann linstans eli par abitan vilaz-lavil pu riske nepli ena puvwar deside lor permi konstriksyon rezidansyel, komers, lindistri, prodiksyon elektrisite, furnitir dilo, lotel dan zot rezyon. Rapel, kuma mo finn mansyone, dan lepase guvernman MSM-MMM ti mem aboli konsey vilaz. Kan sa pa finn dire, Guvernman pe aboli li par enn lot sime.


 Anfet, kan byin gete, Leta pe sed enn parti kontrol ki li sipoze ena lor devlopman fonsye dan pei a sekter prive. Amenazman teritwar, travay Minis Later, travay Minisipalite ek Distrik Kawnsil, tusala pe vinn su Tablisman. Tu sa rezyon ki pu dan Highlands Smart Cities pu nepli su kontrol Minisipalite Vacoas-Phoenix.


 Li vre ki tu proze Smart Cities pe sipervize par State Land Devlopment Company me so Chermenn enn arsitek prive, Gaetan Siew, ki ti anfet dirizan parti politik apel Ensam, enn regrupman ki ti pu aliyn 60 kandida, mem si finalman li finn aliyn zis kat, dan eleksyon zeneral 2014. Aster kapitalist sekter prive ena so dimunn kuma Gaetan Siew ki azir kuma enn sef servis sivil, enn Bacha sekter prive, enn Rao Rama pu Smart Cities. Sa tandans pu donn plis puvwar kapitalis dan lavil ek vilaz ti deza kumanse avek privatiazsyon lespas piblik ki finn antrenn proliferasyon lwazir kuma komodite pu zis dimunn ki kapav peye.


 4. Lalit deklas


Seki karakteriz enn lavil li pa so batiman me sirtu so abitan. Se so abitan ek osi dimunn ki frekant lavil ki donn lavi lavil la so bazar, so magazin, so marsan. So abitan ki anim plas piblik uver kuma Zardin Konpayni, par ezxanp. Dan tu lavil ena sa bann plas popiler kot dimunn konverze kuma Tahir Square, Champs Elysee ubyin Central Park dan New York.


 Port Louis li osi kapital Moris, li syez Guvernman e li plas kot Parlman zwenn. Dan buku kapital ena osi so plas piblik dan sant lavil kot dimunn reyni, kot ena mobilizasyon kan ena pu konfront Leta. Kan Minis Bhadain pe anonse ki pe buz Parlman, PMO ek 15 minister ver Highlands, sa li ena enn sinifikasyon politik grav. Kan deplas Parlman, li vedir deplasman plas kot reprezantan eli lepep abitye zwenn. E li osi plas kot travayer ek so lorganizasyon abitye reyni pu konfront Guvernman ek Leta. Kumadir pe devid Port Louis depi so dimunn ki finn tut long listwar batir so idantite e donn li lavi.


 Pandan listwar, finn tultan ena tantativ depi klas dominan pu reapropriye sant lavil. Dan liv “On the Housing Question”, Friedrich Engels explik lor sa size andetay. Li rakonte kimanyer an 1853, Napoleon III (Bonaparte) ti dimann prefe La Seine, Georges Eugene Haussmann pu pran sarz enn plan irbanizasyon Paris. Haussman ti fer Paris vinn enn imans santye konstriksyon e ti sanz peizaz zeografik lavil la net, me sirtu li ti redesinn kontur Paris pu kumans deplas klas travayer e lezot aktivis politik depi sant lavil pu sanse bare kont tantativ devir puvwar anplas. Li ti kumans transform Paris an enn landrwa su ot sirveyans ek su kontrol militer. Me anfet Revolisyon Lakominn an 1871 anplin Paris ti kal destriksyon sa premye “smart city” ki Haussmann ti pe rod konstrir. Klas travayer, aktivis sosyalis ek tu oprime ti infliz enn defet kont burzwazi ek zot larme e ti instal opuvwar pu premye fwa dan listwar enn guvernman dirize par travayer, mem si zis dan enn sel lavil. Lakominn finn demontre potansyel klas travayer pu invant enn nuvo form demokrasi kot lepep ki deside lor tu seki konsern devlopman so lavil ek so travay.


 Pu premye fwa dan listwar, zordi lamwatye popilasyon mondyal viv dan lavil. Dapre enn rapor larme US, dan prosin deseni sa muvman anmas ver lavil pu aksantye e zot pe dir ki pu bizin plis militariz sant lavil. Proze Smart Cities swiv samem tandans devid sant lavil depi so dimunn, me sirtu depi so plas kot lalit deklas suvan derule, kuma proze Heritage City pe vize. Sa kalite plan li pa ditu dan lavantaz travayer e klas oprime dan lalit kont burzwazi ek so leta. Li pa dan lintere lepep.


AA, Fevriye 2016